Sanitation problems are attributed to the absence of regulatory and policy frameworks and targeted programmes that aim to eliminate the disparities in access to sanitation and services. Moreover, overlapping institutional activities and responsibilities (i.e. governance structures that vest the responsibility of public service delivery with multiple agencies) dilute the accountability and transparency mechanisms.
In order to effectively drive change through state-level policies and strategies, states and cities need to focus on creating well-defined regulatory mechanisms, appropriate economic and financial incentives and ensure clear institutional roles, responsibilities and structures as well as capacities to fulfil those.
At the national level, the National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP), Swachh Bharat Mission and AMRUT provide a pan-India policy framework for sanitation sector development and offer guidelines and strategies to states and cities to achieve their sanitations goals and to strengthen city-level institutions. Municipalities are advised to use the below tools and strategies to ensure efficient public toilet management:
- Responsibility matrix for public toilets management (Table) and allocation of required resources
- Institutionalize PTM planning and management process and align with city’s sanitation strategy (develop City Sanitation Plans (CSP) if required)
- Include design, construction, materials and O&M guidelines in the existing regulatory framework
- Optimize funding (box) and devise adequate financial incentives and mechanisms to attract private sector interest (ensure business case)
- Develop strong monitoring mechanisms (e.g. service provision, open defecation, urination, etc.), performance indicators (output, outcome), penalties for non-compliance
- Build internal capacities for planning, execution, O&M and monitoring
- Develop contract templates
- Initiate public awareness campaigns
- Introduce data management system