Though the day-to-day operations and maintenance (O&M) of the toilets might be handed over to private enterprises for a fixed term under a contractual framework, the municipality needs to regularly monitor the operators’ performance to ensure prescribed service standards are met. While a contract can be drafted with well-meaning intentions, it only becomes an effective management and service delivery tool if monitored and enforced in the right spirit. Indeed, effective monitoring is crucial to the project’s success.
The onus of monitoring is on the municipality. It will need to manage the different contracts (e.g. one contract per cluster). Municipalities are advised to put in place a robust monitoring framework and tools to keep an eye on user perceptions and the operator’s service delivery, thereby ensuring and controlling the PT’s effective planning and management. Monitoring can be done internally (through the municipality), by the community or outsourced. The development of the monitoring framework should involve the following steps:
The operation of any toilet depends on the performance standards that need to be maintained. Standards are defined using toilet operations guidelines (e.g. CPHEEO), universal standards, inputs from user perception surveys and by referring to best practices. Performance standards decide the operational aspects and model for running toilets to the defined performance levels (e.g. manpower optimization by sharing cleaners among 2–3 toilets during non-peak hours), which in turn decides the cluster and contracts to be monitored.
Based on the defined service standards, the performance parameters and indicators need to be formulated (e.g. litter bins and mirrors to be cleaned x times per day). Indicators should be simple, objectively verifiable and measurable. They need to link to non-performance under the contract and associated remedial actions. The municipality should develop and update the service charter of the contract to ensure and control the operator’s service delivery (e.g. gender access obligations).
- Build the municipality staff’s capacities to administer the contracts
- Establish a framework for efficient monitoring
The monitoring framework helps examine the progress and quality of PTM at two levels:
- Ward level – Actual services: User satisfaction and inspection of sanitation facilities. Involves city, operator, user and community
- City level – Compliance to contract agreement: City analyses the data captured at ward level and enforces contract conditions for O&M and if applicable construction on the operator (operational standards and performance benchmarks and penalties). Involves city and operator.
5. Populate and monitor inventory (supply enquiry matrix)
Data collected should be captured and monitored in the online asset inventory.
Monitoring allows the municipality to assess if the project is on schedule in meeting its objectives and performance targets and, if required, to take corrective action. The inventory data show the PT status – whether indicators are met or not (performance appreciation or complaint) – and as such facilitates decision making:
- Complaints Page: Overview of all reported issues, which can also be viewed on a map (red circle icons that when clicked provide a complete list of issues and the basic PT details).
- Update and Address Issue Page: The user can request or initiate corrective measures for a specific toilet (select toilet, issues and sent complaint or remark).