Application on the Ground

The GIZ “Support to the National Sanitation Policy” (SNUSPII) Programme follows a three-tier approach – interventions at the national, state and city level. This facilitates the replication and upscaling of local solutions and promotes the vertical exchange of knowledge, feeding into policy decision making processes at the city, state and national level and as such enabling a broad impact. At the city level, SNUSPII is supporting the city of Tirupati and Shimla to improve their public toilet facilities and services. The cities are advised on how to establish and ensure an efficient Public Toilet Management process that covers assessment, planning and strategy, implementation, monitoring and sustainability. The overall objective of the intervention is that “the service delivery of Public and Community toilets is ubiquitous and satisfactory and its operation and maintenance prevents infrastructure from dilapidation”.

Shimla City intervention

Shimla is often referred to as the "Queen of Hills," a term coined by the British. The city is located in the middle ranges of the Himalayas, about 2,400 m above the sea level. The floating population (service sector) and tourists constitutes a sizable portion of the total population of Shimla (56,000 persons in 2001; 76,000 by 2011). Shimla is easily accessible by city transit but citizens and visitors often cannot find a public toilet when they need one. Looking at individual sanitation facilities, some wards fare better than others. Middle income residential areas have 100% access to individual toilets, while the low income group and urban poor population are more dependent on public toilets. Inadequate toilet provision results in open defecation remaining a problem, especially in low-income settlements, market areas and labour areas (construction, etc.).

As part of the GIZ Support to the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD), Govt. of India, and along with the Note of Co-operation between Himachal Pradesh State, Shimla City and GIZ, GIZ is supporting MC Shimla in the improvement of public toilet services.

Activities undertaken under the respective PTM Process Steps  

GIZ through its partners – Akara Research & iDeCK – supported the city of Shimla in how to establish and ensure an efficient PTM process that covers assessment, planning, strategies, implementation, monitoring and sustainability. Key interventions and results have been summarized in the respective focal areas.

Tirupati City intervention

The city of Tirupati is a religious and tourist hub with a floating population of up to 100,000 persons per day. Providing good public toilet services is one of the most important interventions on the city's sanitation improvement agenda. Traditional models for public toilets systems were found to have a low degree of success and high probability of becoming defunct due to various reasons. Services were rendered by multiple public and private institutions (Tirupati Temple Trust, Railways, Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation). In many cases, the source of funding decided the responsibility for planning, construction and maintenance. Usually, toilets were designed and built by the Public Health and Engineering Department (PHED), while support services such as water supply and sewerage were provided by the Municipal Corporation of Tirupati (TMC). Services were often not planned in a demand-oriented manner and lacked monitoring along transparent performance indicators. In general, TMC officials lacked the capacities to effectively plan, manage and monitor the involvement of private operators in the public toilet management.

As part of the implementation of Tirupati's City Sanitation Plan, the SNUSPII Project supports TMC to improve public toilet management. The objective of the intervention is to develop an improved citywide public toilet management model that is financially sustainable and ensures good services for all users. It will be carried out in a phased manner and will upscale workable models across the state through the State Sanitation Strategy of Andhra Pradesh.

Activities undertaken under the respective PTM Process Steps

GIZ through its partners supported the city of Tirupati in how to establish and ensure an efficient Public Toilet Management process that focuses on demand orientation, gender, service delivery, monitoring and contract management. The initial interventions on 2 public toilets in Tirupati are benefitting about 1,200 people per day and has led to the safe discharge of 3,1 MLD of wastewater through the city's sewerage system from public toilets alone, having a considerable positive human and environmental impact. Key interventions and results have been summarized in the respective focal areas.